Norman PE, Davis WA, Bruce DG, Davis TM. Peripheral arterial disease and risk of cardiac death in type 2 diabetes: the Fremantle Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care. 2006;29:575–80.
Aboyans V, Criqui MH, Abraham P, Allison MA, Creager MA, Diehm C, et al. Measurement and interpretation of the ankle-brachial index: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2012;126:2890–909.
Miyata M. Noninvasive assessment of arterial stiffness using oscillometric methods: baPWV, CAVI, API, and AVI. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2018;25:790–1.
Dumor K, Shoemaker-Moyle M, Nistala R, Whaley-Connell A. Arterial stiffness in hypertension: an update. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2018;20:72.
Albu A, Para I, Porojan M. Uric acid and arterial stiffness. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2020;16:39–54.
Roman MJ, Devereux RB, Schwartz JE, Lockshin MD, Paget SA, Davis A, et al. Arterial stiffness in chronic inflammatory diseases. Hypertension. 2005;46:194–9.
Mahmud A, Feely J. Arterial stiffness is related to systemic inflammation in essential hypertension. Hypertension. 2005;46:1118–22.
Pirro M, Manfredelli MR, Helou RS, Scarponi AM, Schillaci G, Bagaglia F, et al. Association of parathyroid hormone and 25-OH-vitamin D levels with arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2012;19:924–31.
Christakos S, Dhawan P, Verstuyf A, Verlinden L, Carmeliet G. Vitamin D: metabolism, molecular mechanism of action, and pleiotropic effects. Physiol Rev. 2016;96:365–408.
Dawson-Hughes B, Staten MA, Knowler WC, Nelson J, Vickery EM, LeBlanc ES, et al. Intratrial exposure to vitamin D and new-onset diabetes among adults with prediabetes: a secondary analysis from the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) Study. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:2916–22.
Mitri J, Pittas AG. Vitamin D and diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2014;43:205–32.
Depczynski B, Young T, White C. A high ankle-brachial index is associated with obesity and low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in patients with diabetes. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2018;11:7–10.
Sunbul M, Cincin A, Bozbay M, Mammadov C, Atas H, Ozsenel EB, et al. Arterial stiffness parameters associated with vitamin D deficiency and supplementation in patients with normal cardiac functions. Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2016;44:281–8.
Rodriguez AJ, Scott D, Srikanth V, Ebeling P. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on measures of arterial stiffness: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Endocrinol. 2016;84:645–57.
American Diabetes A. 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes: standards of medical care in diabetes—2020. Diabetes Care. 2020;43:S14–S31.
Katakami N, Osonoi T, Takahara M, Saitou M, Matsuoka TA, Yamasaki Y, et al. Clinical utility of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in the prediction of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014;13:128.
Fowkes FG. The measurement of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease in epidemiological surveys. Int J Epidemiol. 1988;17:248–54.
Pugh PJ, Jones TH, Channer KS. Acute haemodynamic effects of testosterone in men with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:909–15.
Boutouyrie P, Tropeano AI, Asmar R, Gautier I, Benetos A, Lacolley P, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of primary coronary events in hypertensive patients: a longitudinal study. Hypertension. 2002;39:10–5.
Hilger J, Friedel A, Herr R, Rausch T, Roos F, Wahl DA, et al. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. Br J Nutr. 2014;111:23–45.
Pludowski P, Grant WB, Bhattoa HP, Bayer M, Povoroznyuk V, Rudenka E, et al. Vitamin D status in central europe. Int J Endocrinol. 2014;2014:589587.
Walsh JS, Bowles S, Evans AL. Vitamin D in obesity. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2017;24:389–94.
Bellia A, Garcovich C, D’Adamo M, Lombardo M, Tesauro M, Donadel G, et al. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are inversely associated with systemic inflammation in severe obese subjects. Intern Emerg Med. 2013;8:33–40.
Zhang M, Gao Y, Tian L, Zheng L, Wang X, Liu W, et al. Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with adipokines and inflammatory marker in persons with prediabetes mellitus. Clin Chim Acta. 2017;468:152–8.
Pittas AG, Dawson-Hughes B, Sheehan P, Ware JH, Knowler WC, Aroda VR, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and prevention of Type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2019;381:520–30.
Shab-Bidar S, Neyestani TR, Djazayery A, Eshraghian MR, Houshiarrad A, Kalayi A, et al. Improvement of vitamin D status resulted in amelioration of biomarkers of systemic inflammation in the subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012;28:424–30.
Drincic AT, Armas LA, Van Diest EE, Heaney RP. Volumetric dilution, rather than sequestration best explains the low vitamin D status of obesity. Obesity. 2012;20:1444–8.
Krishna SM. Vitamin D as a protector of arterial health: potential role in peripheral arterial disease formation. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20:4907.
Ganji V, Tangpricha V, Zhang X. Serum vitamin D concentration >/=75 nmol/L is related to decreased cardiometabolic and inflammatory biomarkers, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes; and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in US adults. Nutrients 2020;12:730.
Manson JE, Cook NR, Lee IM, Christen W, Bassuk SS, Mora S, et al. Vitamin D supplements and prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2019;380:33–44.
Barbarawi M, Kheiri B, Zayed Y, Barbarawi O, Dhillon H, Swaid B, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and cardiovascular disease risks in more than 83000 individuals in 21 Randomized Clinical Trials: a meta-analysis. JAMA Cardiol. 2019;4:765–76.
Mirhosseini N, Rainsbury J, Kimball SM. Vitamin D supplementation, serum 25(OH)D concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018;5:87.
Raed A, Bhagatwala J, Zhu H, Pollock NK, Parikh SJ, Huang Y, et al. Dose responses of vitamin D3 supplementation on arterial stiffness in overweight African Americans with vitamin D deficiency: a placebo controlled randomized trial. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0188424.
Zittermann A, Schleithoff SS, Koerfer R. Putting cardiovascular disease and vitamin D insufficiency into perspective. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:483–92.
Equils O, Naiki Y, Shapiro AM, Michelsen K, Lu D, Adams J, et al. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced immune activation in human endothelial cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;143:58–64.
Schleithoff SS, Zittermann A, Tenderich G, Berthold HK, Stehle P, Koerfer R. Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83:754–9.
Li YC, Kong J, Wei M, Chen ZF, Liu SQ, Cao LP. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D(3) is a negative endocrine regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:229–38.
Criqui MH, Aboyans V, Allison MA, Denenberg JO, Forbang N, McDermott MM, et al. Peripheral artery disease and aortic disease. Glob Heart. 2016;11:313–26.
Zhang YJ, Wu SL, Li HY, Zhao QH, Ning CH, Zhang RY. et al. [Comparison of arterial stiffness in non-hypertensive and hypertensive population of various age groups]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2018;46:56–63.
Mirhosseini N, Vatanparast H, Kimball SM. The association between serum 25(OH)D status and blood pressure in participants of a community-based program taking vitamin D supplements. Nutrients 2017;9:1244.
Huang J, Chen Z, Yuan J, Zhang C, Chen H, Wu W, et al. Association between body mass index (BMI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in males with hypertension: a community-based cross-section study in North China. Med Sci Monit. 2019;25:5241–57.
Ogawa O, Hiraoka K, Watanabe T, Kinoshita J, Kawasumi M, Yoshii H, et al. Diabetic retinopathy is associated with pulse wave velocity, not with the augmentation index of pulse waveform. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2008;7:11.
Yun YW, Shin MH, Lee YH, Rhee JA, Choi JS. Arterial stiffness is associated with diabetic retinopathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44:260–6.
Tanaka K, Kawai T, Saisho Y, Meguro S, Harada K, Satoh Y, et al. Relationship between stage of diabetic retinopathy and pulse wave velocity in japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Res. 2013;2013:193514.
Ha BK, Kim BG, Kim DH, Lee SI, Jung SM, Park JY, et al. Relationships between brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab J. 2012;36:443–51.
Wu N, Cai X, Ye K, Li Y, He M, Zhao W, et al. Association between brachial–ankle pulse wave velocity and cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetes. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2014;6:82.
Si XB, Liu W. Relationship between blood lipid and arterial stiffness in hypertension. Clin Investig Med. 2019;42:E47–E55.
Kinouchi M, Aihara K, Fujinaka Y, Yoshida S, Ooguro Y, Kurahashi K, et al. Diabetic conditions differentially affect the endothelial function, arterial stiffness and carotid atherosclerosis. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2014;21:486–500.
Fiorentino TV, Marini MA, Succurro E, Andreozzi F, Sesti G. Relationships of surrogate indexes of insulin resistance with insulin sensitivity assessed by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and subclinical vascular damage. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2019;7:e000911.
Marfella R, d’Amico M, Di Filippo C, Siniscalchi M, Sasso FC, Ferraraccio F, et al. The possible role of the ubiquitin proteasome system in the development of atherosclerosis in diabetes. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2007;6:35.
Aghdam SY, Sheibani N. The ubiquitin–proteasome system and microvascular complications of diabetes. J Ophthalmic Vis Res. 2013;8:244–56.
Alvarez-Diaz S, Larriba MJ, Lopez-Otin C, Munoz A. Vitamin D: proteases, protease inhibitors and cancer. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:32–7.